Paper presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Childcare
"Development of Mickel Art Kids Edition"
Here, the content of the paper presented at the 73rd Japan Childcare Society is posted.
Theory Hashiguchi (Venture company from Shizuoka University, Spray Art Exgin Co., Ltd.)
Ⅰ Background and purpose
Children are stimulated by all kinds of environments, including people and things around them. Then, in such an experience, I feel various things and get a new opportunity for "awareness". With "awareness" as a trigger, children think for themselves and develop an attitude and motivation to try on their own. That power leads to the acquisition of the power to live and the establishment of one's own life.
Nursery school childcare has a mission to acquire the ability and independence of children to live in the future, and is in a position to systematically prepare and organize a childcare environment based on the situation and development process of each child.
So what are some ways for children to think and act for themselves through the environment?
Therefore, the author (Hashiguchi) visited the nursery school to find out what the nursery teachers were worried about and hit the wall. There were various answers from the nursery teachers, but the most common opinion was "Why shouldn't you do it?" And "What should I do in such a case?" The number of children has increased. "
From the above background, this paper takes a method of approaching children from the visual sense, and aims to create art for "cultivating the ability of children to think for themselves".
We also chose art with a realistic touch as a visual approach tool. The reason is that nursery teachers say, "The tools that are easy to convey differ depending on the child. I want new tools other than existing pictures and picture cards such as deformed illustrations." The art to be produced is limited to a realistic touch.
First of all, in order to know what kind of art is required in the field, a period from January to December 2019 was set up, and 802 nursery schools (802 responses, 100% valid response rate). We conducted a pre-questionnaire.
The sample was targeted at nursery school staff, but since it is considered impossible for all staff to respond due to their busy schedule, the director took a questionnaire from any nursery teacher in the visiting detention survey.
Questionnaire questions include information necessary for creating the art required in the field, such as "points that you find difficult in daycare (free answers)" and "art material you want to use (multiple answers allowed)". did.
Next, we simply aggregated the pre-questionnaire, and based on the results, 450 types of subjects such as lifestyle, dietary education, seasonal events, traffic safety, importance of life, creatures, relationships with people, occupations, etc. I made the art of. (Fig. 1 Example of produced art)
The created art was used by nursery teachers at 24 nursery schools where we were able to obtain permission to cooperate with this questionnaire. Since the field of use differs depending on the nursery teacher, we left it to the nursery teachers in each kindergarten to select 5 types from 450 types every month and distributed them.
The utilization period and this questionnaire were conducted by visiting detention surveys, and responses were obtained from 430 nursery teachers who work at any of the 24 nursery centers. The response period is divided from June to December 2019. Regarding the contents of this questionnaire, "Target age using 5 types of art (multiple answers allowed)" "What I was particularly conscious of in 5 areas (health, relationships, environment, words, expressions) (single answer)" "Children's We asked them to report on the reaction (free description) and the ingenuity of the nursery teacher (free description). (Fig. 2 Art utilization example)
The totals excluding free responses are simple totals of the answers obtained from this questionnaire. Of the collected questionnaires, those that did not answer only specific questions were included in the number of valid responses and valid response rate, and were counted as "no answer".
The results of "Target age using 5 types of art (multiple answers allowed)" (n = 430, 1422 valid responses, 100% valid response rate) by nursery teachers are "Table 1 Target age using 5 types of art". It became the street.
From this result, it can be seen that the target age class in which nursery teachers used art was 82.3% for the 5-year-old class, 82.0% for the 3-year-old child class by a small margin, and 76.7% for the 4-year-old child class.
Next, from "What the nursery teacher was aware of in 5 areas (health, relationships, environment, words, expressions) (single answer)" (n = 430, valid responses 361, valid response rate 84.0%), the environment The most common answers were 60.1% and 23.0% for health, followed by 1.1% for words and 1.4% for expressions. (See "What I was particularly aware of in Table 25 area")
As a third result, I will give an example of the environment regarding the reaction of children when using art.
Art with frogs and crayfish in the rice fields
[Aim of nursery teachers using this art]
I hope you will be interested in animals and plants by looking at the pictures and have a chance to wonder.
I was wondering "what is this?" And was able to convey my thoughts to the other party.
[Impressions of nursery teachers using art]
I was able to find out what the children were wondering about and encourage them to explore for themselves.
Art in which larvae laid from eggs molt and become cicadas
[Aim of nursery teachers using this art]
Interested in the process of growth of living things.
What will be this time? There were many children who thought. I enjoyed looking at the picture book and thinking about it.
[Impressions of nursery teachers using art]
Children immediately noticed by sticking it on the place where they always put it, but it may be fun to put it on a different place, so I will try it next month.
Ⅳ Consideration / Conclusion
From the results, since most of the subjects who utilize art are from the 3-year-old class to the 5-year-old class, nursery teachers who are mainly required to support the healthy growth of children until early childhood, but when it comes to the 3-year-old class and above Children are required to think, express and act on their own, and nursery teachers must watch over and play a role in their assistance. Especially in preparation for entering elementary school, it is necessary to watch over the process of children's physical and mental health and sometimes to assist them. It is thought that a tool with a wide variety of art was used this time as a tool to promote its growth.
In addition, from the ratio that nursery teachers were aware of in the five areas, it can be said that nursery teachers place importance on creating an environment that is conscious of "environment" and "health" through art. It is probable that there was a lot of demand for art related to "health" because measures against infectious diseases are indispensable in group living. Since the "environment" has various aspects such as the natural environment and living environment, it is necessary to further investigate what kind of environment is required in the future.
In the case of the child's reaction, art may play the following roles.
1. 1. Creating an environment for posting art
In this study, art often utilized the walls of the garden. By posting the art on the wall, the child naturally got into the field of vision, and it became an opportunity to think for himself by looking at it and imagining it alone.
2. Posting method that does not say the answer
The nursery teacher did not post the growth process of the creature at once, but posted it by changing the art every week. By not showing the answer, the child is motivated to look up and think in the picture book. In addition, it was seen that thinking and imagination deepened by knowing the world that cannot be seen normally.
Based on these, in order to develop the ability of children to think for themselves, selection of themes according to the child's growth, visual interest through art, how to post art, timing to replace art, "Why do you think?" It can be said that it is important for nursery teachers to work appropriately. With the help and supervision of a nursery teacher, the child was motivated to learn deeply by thinking for himself, discussing with friends, and looking up in a picture book.
And there is a voice in the field that "I was able to know what the child was interested in" by the art produced in this article. From this, it is thought that it became one of the tools for nursery teachers to know about children, and by seeing art and expressing their thoughts, it helped to create an opportunity to encourage spontaneity and thinking.
In the future, it is necessary to continue to consider cases of how the range of childcare has expanded by increasing various themes and continuously utilizing art.
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